Working With Sources: Paraphrasing and Direct Quoting

difference-between-summary-and-paraphrase-infographic-674x1024While summaries are essential for discussing an entire source, paraphrasing allows you to integrate specific parts of a source into your own writing. Paraphrasing is your go-to strategy for avoiding plagiarism when borrowing other peoples’ ideas. When deciding whether to paraphrase or use a direct quotation as a strategy in your writing, make a rhetorical decision based on your audience, purpose, and context.

Effective paraphrases:

  • include all of the author’s ideas.
  • include only the author’s ideas.
  • are accurate and fair.
  • are entirely in your own words and sentence structures.
  • are properly cited through in-text, parenthetical citations and citations in a Works Cited
  • use attribution in the same sentence as the paraphrase
  • are your best weapon against a charge of plagiarism

Common issues FYW’s have with paraphrasing

  • Not capturing all of author’s idea from a part of the text
  • Including only the author’s ideas from a part of the text
  • Not using both different vocabulary and different sentence structure.
  • Not including both an in-text citation in the text after your paraphrase using both authors and page numbers and not listing the source in the Works Cited

Use this handy guide to paraphrasing from UNC-Chapel Hill’s Writing.

Direct Quotations

There are only a few reasons to use direct quotations from a source. In fact, only about 10% of source material that you integrate into your own writing should be directly quoted. Use direct quotations if:

  • the language from the original source is specialized or technical and can’t be adequately rephrased
  • the language from the original source is particularly powerful and you would loose that power by rephrasing
  • you want to analyze, argue with, point close attention to the specific language (not just the ideas) of the original source

Common issues FYW’s have with direct quotations:

  • Not using quotation marks at the beginning and end of any directly quoted material
  • Not copying the language exactly as it is written in the original
  • Not including both an in-text citation in the text after your paraphrase using both authors and page numbers and not listing the source in the Works Cited
  • Not including attribution in the same sentence as the paraphrase
  • Quoting part of an original source that doesn’t immediately pertain to your argument

 

 

 

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